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Toyota Land Cruiser Prado 4WD Petrol Diesel 1996-2009

Diesel fuel on the whole is actually any liquid fuel found in diesel engines. The most typical is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are maybe not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly referred to as petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is actually a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2006, almost all of the petroleum-based diesel fuel available in UK, Europe and North America is of a ULSD type.

In the UK, diesel fuel for on-roadway use is actually commonly abbreviated DERV, standing for diesel-engined road vehicle, which carries a tax premium over equivalent fuel for non-road use (see Taxation).

In Australia diesel fuel is also known as 'distillate'.

Unlike gasoline and liquefied oil gas engines, diesel engines do not use high-voltage spark ignition (spark plugs). a motor running on diesel compresses the atmosphere inside the cylinder to high temps and pressures (compression ratios from 14:1 to 18:1 are common in current diesel engines); the engine generally injects the diesel fuel straight into the cylinder, starting a few degrees before top dead center (TDC) and continuing throughout the combustion event. The high temperatures inside the cylinder cause the diesel energy to react aided by the oxygen in the mix (oxidize or burn), heating and expanding the burning mixture to convert the thermal/pressure distinction into mechanical work, i.e., to maneuver the piston. Engines have glow plugs to help start the engine by preheating the cylinders down operating temperature. Diesel motors are lean burn engines, burning the fuel in more air than is actually required for the substance reaction. They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which utilize a Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to react with the fuel). Because they have high compression ratios and no throttle, diesel engines are a lot more efficient than many spark-ignited engines.

Gas turbine internal combustion engines can also take diesel fuel, as can some other sorts of internal combustion. External combustion engines can certainly use diesel fuel as well.

This efficiency and its lower flammability than gasoline are the two main reasons for military use of diesel in armored fighting vehicles. Engines running on diesel also provide more torque, and are less inclined to stall, because they are regulated by mechanical or electronic governor.

A disadvantage of diesel as a vehicle gas in cool climates, is that its viscosity increases as the temperature lowers, altering it into a gel (see Compression Ignition that cannot flow in fuel systems. Special low-temperature diesel contains additives to keep it liquid at lower temperatures, but starting a diesel engine in very cold weather may still pose considerable difficulties.

Another disadvantage of diesel engines compared to petrol/gasoline engines is the alternative of runaway failure. Since diesel engines do not require spark ignition, they can run as long as diesel fuel is supplied. Fuel is typically supplied via a fuel pump. When the pump breaks down in an "open" position, the supply of fuel will end up being unrestricted, plus the engine will run away and risk terminal failure.

With turbocharged engines, the oil seals on the turbocharger may allowing, fail lubricating oil into the combustion chamber, where it is burned like regular diesel fuel.

In installations or vehicles which use diesel engines as well as bottled fuel, a gas leak into the engine space could also provide fuel for a runaway, via the engine air intake.

Diesel engines have the lowest specific gasoline consumption of every large internal burning engine employing a single cycle, 0.26 (0.16 kg/kWh) for large marine engines (mixed cycle power plants tend to be more efficient, but employ two engines rather than one). Two-stroke diesels with high pressure forced induction, specifically turbocharging, make up a large percentage of the extremely largest diesel engines.

In North America, diesel machines are mostly used in large vehicles, where the low-stress, high-efficiency pattern leads to much longer engine life and lower operational expenses. These advantages also make the diesel engine ideal for utilize in the heavy-haul railroad environment.

One of Diesel's professors in Munich was Carl von Linde. Diesel was incapable of be graduated with their class in July 1879 as he fell ill with typhoid. While waiting when it comes to next examination date, he gained functional engineering experience at the Sulzer Maschinenfabrik (Sulzer Brothers device Functions) in Winterthur, Switzerland. Diesel was graduated in January 1880 with highest academic honours and returned to Paris, where he assisted his former Munich professor, Carl von Linde, with the design and structure of a contemporary ice and refrigeration plant. Diesel became the director of the plant one year later.

In 1883, Diesel married Martha Flasche, and carried on to work with Linde, gaining numerous patents both in Germany and France.

In very early 1890, Diesel moved to Berlin with his wife, Rudolf and children Jr, Heddy, and Eugen, to assume management of Linde's corporate research and advancement department and to join various other corporate boards there. As he had been not allowed to utilize the patents he developed while an employee of Linde's for his or her own functions, he expanded beyond the field of refrigeration. The man first worked with steam, his research into thermal efficiency and power efficiency leading him to build a vapor engine utilizing ammonia vapour. During exams, however, the engine erupted and almost killed him. He spent many months in a hospital, followed by vision and health problems. He then began developing an engine based on the Carnot cycle, and in 1893, soon after Karl Benz was granted a patent for his invention of the engine car in 1886, Diesel published a treatise entitled Theorie und Konstruktion eines rationellen

Diesel understood thermodynamics and the theoretical and practical constraints on fuel efficiency. He knew that as much as 90% of the electricity offered in the fuel is wasted in a steam engine. His work in engine layout was pushed by the aim of much higher efficiency ratios. After trying out a Carnot Cycle engine, he developed his own approach. Eventually, he received a patent for his design for a compression-ignition engine. In his fuel, engine was injected during the end of compression and the fuel was ignited by the high temperature resulting from compression. From 1893 to 1897, Heinrich von Buz, director of MAN AG in Augsburg, gave Rudolf Diesel the opportunity to test and develop his ideas. Rudolf Diesel obtained patents for his design in Germany and various other countries, including the U.S. The diesel engine (also generally known as a compression-ignition engine) is an interior combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline), which use a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture.

The diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any standard internal or external burning engine due to its very high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel motors (as used in ships and other applications where overall engine body weight is relatively unimportant) might have a thermal efficiency that exceeds 50%.

Diesel engines are created in two-stroke and four-stroke variations. They were originally used as a more efficient replacement for fixed steam engines. Since the 1910s they usually have been utilized in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy equipment and electric generating plants accompanied later. Within the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the utilize of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA increased. According for the British Society of Motor Manufacturing and Traders, the EU average for diesel cars account for 50% of the total sold, including 70% in France and 38% in the UK.

The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel rather than using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than spark ignition).

In the true diesel engine, only air is initially introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is next compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 leading to 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) pressure compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.40 MPa; 120 to 200 psi) in the petrol engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 . At about the top of the compression stroke, fuel is actually injected directly into the compressed air in the combustion chamber. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the top of the piston or a pre-chamber based upon the design of the engine. The gasoline injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes gasoline from the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited because of the temperature from the compressed air in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue steadily to vaporise from their areas and burn, getting smaller, until all of the fuel into the droplets provides been burnt. The start of vaporisation triggers a delay period during ignition and the characteristic diesel knocking sound as the vapour reaches ignition temperature and causes an abrupt upsurge in pressure over the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion gases then drives the piston downward, supplying capacity to the crankshaft.

And the high level of compression allowing combustion to take place without a different ignition system, a higher compression ratio significantly increases the engine's efficiency. Increasing the compression ratio in a spark-ignition engine where air and fuel are mixed before entryway to the tube is restricted by the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and gasoline is not introduced into the cylinder until soon before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not issue and compression ratios are much higher.

Diesel's original engine injected gasoline using the aid of compressed atmosphere, which atomized the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle (an identical principle to an aerosol spray). The nozzle opening ended up being closed by a pin valve lifted by the camshaft to initiate the fuel injection before top dead centre (TDC). This is certainly known as an air-blast injection. Driving the three stage compressor used some energy but the performance and web power production was more than any other combustion engine at that time.

Diesel engines in service today increase the fuel to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and deliver it to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors without compressed air. With direct injected diesels, injectors spray fuel through 4 to 12 small orifices in its nozzle. The early air injection diesels always had a superior burning without the sharp increase in pressure during combustion. Research is now being performed and patents tend to be being taken out to again use some form of air injection to reduce the nitrogen oxides and pollution, reverting to Diesel's initial implementation featuring its superior combustion and possibly quieter operation. In most major aspects, the modern diesel engine keeps true to Rudolf Diesel's original design, compared to igniting fuel by compression at an extremely high pressure within the cylinder. With much higher pressures and high technology injectors, present-day diesel engines use the so-called strong injection system applied by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine. The indirect injection engine might be considered the most recent development of these low speed hot bulb ignition engines.

In cold temperatures, high speed diesel machines can be difficult to start because the mass associated with cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, preventing ignition as a result of the higher surface-to-volume ratio. Pre-chambered engines make use of small electric heaters inside the pre-chambers labeled as glowplugs, while the direct-injected engines have these glowplugs in the combustion chamber.

Many engines utilize resistive heaters within the intake manifold to warm the inlet air for beginning, or until the engine gets to operating temperature. System block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are used in cold climates when an engine is switched off for extended periods (more than an hour), to cut back startup time and engine wear. Block heaters are also utilized for disaster power standby Diesel-powered generators which must quickly pick up load on a power failure. In the past, a wider variety of cold-start methods were used. Some engines, such as Detroit Diesel engines used a program to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion. Others used a mixed system, with a resistive heater burning methanol. An impromptu method, specifically on out-of-tune engines, would be to by hand spray an aerosol can of ether-based engine starter fluid into the intake air stream (usually via the intake air filter assembly).

Many diesels have become turbocharged and a few are both turbo charged and supercharged. Because diesels do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated, more than one bar (100 kPa) of air can be loaded within the cylinder without preignition. A turbocharged engine can develop far more power than a naturally aspirated engine on the same configuration, as having more air in the cylinders allows more fuel to be burned and thus more power to be produced. A supercharger is powered automatically through the engine's crankshaft, while a turbocharger is powered by the engine exhaust, not requiring any mechanical power. Turbocharging can enhance the fuel economy of diesel engines by recovering waste heat from the exhaust, increasing the excess environment factor, and increasing the ratio of engine productivity to friction losses.

A two-stroke engine does not have a discrete exhaust and intake stroke and thus is incapable of self-aspiration. Therefore all two-stroke engines must be fitted with a blower to recharge the cylinders with air and assist in dispersing fatigue gases, an ongoing process referred to as scavenging. In some cases, the engine may also end up being fitted with a turbocharger, whoever output is directed into the blower inlet. A few styles employ a hybrid turbocharger for scavenging and charging the cylinders, which device is actually mechanically driven at cranking and low rates to act as a blower.

As supercharged or turbocharged engines produce more energy for a given engine dimensions as compared to normally aspirated attention, engines must be paid to the mechanical design of components, lubrication, and cooling to handle the power. Pistons are normally cooled with lubrication oil sprayed on the bottom associated with the piston. Huge engines may use sea, water water, or oil supplied through telescoping pipes attached to the crosshead.

As with gasoline engines, there are two classes of diesel engines in current use: two-stroke and four-stroke. The four-stroke type is the "classic" model, tracing its lineage back to Rudolf Diesel's prototype. Information technology is also the many commonly used form, being the recommended power source for lots of engine vehicles, especially buses and trucks. Much larger engines, such as used for railroad locomotion and marine propulsion, are often two-stroke units, offering a more favourable power-to-weight ratio, as well as better fuel economy. The most powerful engines in the entire world are two-stroke diesels of large dimensions.

Two-stroke diesel engine operation is comparable to this of petrol counterparts, except that gas is not combined with air before induction, while the crankcase really does not take an active character in the cycle. The traditional two-stroke design relies upon a mechanically pushed positive displacement blower to charge the cylinders with air before compression and ignition. The charging process also assists in expelling (scavenging) combustion gases continuing to be out of the previous power stroke.

The archetype of the modern form on the two-stroke diesel is the (high-speed) Detroit Diesel Series 71 engine, designed by Charles F. "Boss" Kettering and his co-workers at General Motors Corporation in 1938, in which the blower pressurizes a chamber when you look at the engine block that is often referred to as the "air box". The (very much larger medium-speed) Electro-Motive Diesel engine is utilized as the prime mover in EMD diesel-electric locomotive, marine and stationary applications, and was developed by the same group, and is also built to the same principle. However, a substantial improvement included in most later EMD engines is the mechanically-assisted turbo-compressor, which offers charge air utilizing mechanical assistance during starting (thereby obviating the necessity for Roots-blown scavenging), and provides charge air using an exhaust gas-driven turbine during normal operationsthereby offering genuine turbocharging and additionally growing the engine's power output by at the very least fifty percent.

In a two-stroke diesel engine, as the cylinder's piston approaches the base lifeless center fatigue harbors or regulators are exposed alleviating most of the excess pressure after which a passage between the air box and the cylinder is opened, permitting environment flow into the cylinder. The air movement blows the remaining combustion fumes out of thethis is the scavenging process. Whilst the piston moves through bottom heart and starts up, the passage is closed and compression commences, culminating in fuel injection and ignition. Refer to two-stroke diesel engines for more in depth coverage of aspiration types and supercharging of two-stroke diesel engines.

Normally, the number of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used provided that the load on the crankshaft is actually counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration. The inline-six-cylinder layout is one of prolific in light- to medium-duty engines, though small V8 and larger inline-four displacement machines are also common. Small-capability engines (normally considered to be those below five litres in capacity) are generally four- or six-cylinder types, with the four-cylinder getting the many common type located in automotive uses. Five-cylinder diesel engines have also been made, becoming a compromise amongst the smooth running of the six-cylinder and the space-efficient dimensions of the four-cylinder. Diesel engines for smaller plant machinery, boats, tractors, generators and pumps may be four, three or two-cylinder types, with the single-cylinder diesel engine continuing to be for light stationary work. Direct reversible two-stroke marine diesels need at least three cylinders for reliable restarting forwards and reverse, while four-stroke diesels require at least six cylinders.

The need to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio produced several novel cylinder arrangements to draw out even more power from a given capacity. The uniflow opposed-piston engine uses two pistons in one cylinder because of the combustion hole in the centre and gas in- and outlets at the ends. This is why a relatively light, powerful, swiftly running and financial engine suitable to be used in aviation. An instance is the Junkers Jumo 204/205. The Napier Deltic motor, with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation, each containing two opposed pistons, your whole engine having three crankshafts, is one of the better known.

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