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Toyota Land Cruiser Diesel Petrol 1980-1998 Haynes Service Repair Workshop Manual

Diesel fuel as a whole is any liquid gas utilized in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but options that are not derived from petroleum, these as biomass, biodiesel to liquid (BTL) or gasoline to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these sorts, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly referred to as petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is actually a requirement for defining diesel gasoline with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2006, almost all the petroleum-based diesel fuel available in UK, Europe and North America is of a ULSD type.

In the UK, diesel gas for on-road use is usually abbreviated DERV, standing for diesel-engined road vehicle, which holds a tax premium over equivalent fuel for non-road use (see Taxation).

In Australia diesel fuel is also referred to as 'distillate'.

Unlike gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas engines, diesel engines do not use high-voltage spark ignition (spark plugs). An engine operating on diesel compresses the air inside the cylinder to high conditions and pressures (compression ratios from 14:1 to 18:1 are typical in current diesel engines); the engine generally injects the diesel fuel directly into the cylinder, starting several degrees before top dead center (TDC) and continuing during the combustion event. The high temperatures within the tube cause the diesel fuel to respond with all the oxygen in the mix (burn or oxidize), heating and expanding the burning mixture to convert the thermal/pressure difference into mechanical work, i.e., to move the piston. Engines have glow plugs to assist start the engine by preheating the cylinders to a minimum operating temperature. Diesel engines are lean burn engines, burning the fuel in more air than is required for the chemical reaction. They thus use less fuel than rich shed spark ignition engines which use a Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to react with the fuel). Because they have actually high compression ratios and no throttle, diesel engines will be more efficient than a lot of spark-ignited engines.

Gas turbine inner combustion engines also can take diesel fuel, as can some other forms of internal burning. External combustion engines can easily use diesel fuel because well.

This efficiency and its lower flammability than gasoline are the two main reasons for military use of diesel in armored fighting vehicles. Engines operating on diesel also provide more torque, and are less likely to stall, as these people are managed by electronic or mechanical governor.

A disadvantage of diesel as a vehicle energy in cold climates, is the fact that its viscosity rises as the temperature changing, decreases it into a gel (see Compression Ignition Gelling) at temperatures of Ã�ÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃF) toÃ�ÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃF), that cannot flow in fuel systems. Special low-temperature diesel contains additives to keep it liquid at reduced temperatures, but starting a diesel engine in extremely cold temperatures may still pose considerable difficulties.

Another disadvantage of diesel engines compared to petrol/gasoline engines is the possibility of runaway failure. Since diesel engines do maybe not need spark ignition, they can operate as long as diesel fuel is supplied. Gasoline is usually furnished via a fuel pump. If the pump breaks straight down in an "open" position, the production of fuel will end up being unhindered, and the engine will run away and risk terminal failure.

With turbocharged engines, the oil seals on the turbocharger may allowing, fail lubricating oil into the combustion chamber, where it's burned like regular diesel fuel.

In vehicles or installations which use diesel machines and also bottled fuel, a gas leak into the engine space could also provide gas for a runaway, via the engine air intake.

Diesel engines have the lowest specific fuel consumption of any big internal combustion engine employing a single cycle, 0.26 lb/hpÃ�ÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃh (0.16 kg/kWh) for very large marine engines (mixed cycle power plants are more efficient, but employ two motors rather than one). Two-stroke diesels with high pressure forced induction, particularly turbocharging, make up a large percentage of the very largest diesel machines.

In North America, diesel engines are primarily used in big vehicles, where the low-stress, high-efficiency cycle leads to much longer engine life and lower operational costs. These advantages also make the diesel engine ideal for use in the heavy-haul railway environment.

Among Diesel's professors in Munich was Carl von Linde. Diesel was unable to be graduated with his class in July 1879 because he dropped ill with typhoid. While waiting for the next examination date, he gained practical engineering experience during the Gebrder Sulzer Maschinenfabrik (Sulzer Brothers Machine Works) in Winterthur, Switzerland. Diesel was graduated in January 1880 with highest academic honours and returned to Paris, where he assisted their former Munich professor, Carl von Linde, with the design and construction of a modern ice and refrigeration plant. Diesel became the director of the plant one year later.

In 1883, Diesel partnered Martha Flasche, and proceeded to focus for Linde, gaining numerous patents in both Germany and France.

In early 1890, Diesel moved to Berlin with his Rudolf, wife and children Jr, Heddy, and Eugen, to assume management of Linde's business research and improvement department and to join several other corporate panels there. As he was not allowed to use the patents he produced while an employee of Linde's for his very own purposes, he expanded beyond the field of refrigeration. He very first worked with steam, their research into thermal efficiency and fuel efficiency leading him to build a steam engine using ammonia vapour. During tests, however, the engine exploded and nearly killed him. The guy invested many months in a medical center, followed by eyesight and health issues. He then began designing an engine based regarding the Carnot cycle, and in 1893, soon after Karl Benz was granted a patent for his invention of the motor automobile in 1886, Diesel published a treatise entitled Theorie und Konstruktion eines rationellen WÃ�ÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃrmemotors zum Ersatz der Dampfmaschine und der heute bekannten Verbrennungsmotoren and formed the foundation for his work on and invention of the diesel engine.

Diesel understood thermodynamics and the theoretical and practical constraints on fuel efficiency. He knew that since much as 90% of the power available in the gas is wasted in a steam engine. His operate in engine design was driven by the aim of much higher efficiency ratios. After experimenting with a Carnot Cycle motor, he developed his own approach. Eventually, the guy obtained a patent for his design for a compression-ignition engine. In his fuel, engine was injected at the end of compression and the fuel was ignited by the high temperature resulting from compression. From 1893 to 1897, Heinrich von Buz, director of MAN AG in Augsburg, gave Rudolf Diesel the opportunity to develop and test his ideas. Rudolf Diesel obtained patents for his design in Germany and other countries, including the U.S. The diesel engine (in addition known as a compression-ignition engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to start ignition and burn the fuel that has recently been injected into the burning chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (petrol engine) or fuel engine (using a gaseous fuel as against gasoline), which utilize a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel combination.

The diesel engine provides the greatest thermal efficiency of any standard inner or exterior combustion engine because of to its very high compression ratio. Low-speed diesel engines (as used in ships and different applications where overall engine weight is actually reasonably unimportant) can have a thermal efficiency that exceeds 50%.

Diesel engines are manufactured in four-stroke and two-stroke versions. They were initially used as an even more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they were used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy gear and electric generating plants followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in several vehicles. Since the 1970s, the utilize of diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the USA increased. According to the British Society of Motor Manufacturing and Traders, the EU average for diesel cars account for 50% of the total sold, including 70% in France and 38% in the UK.

The diesel internal combustion engine differs from the gasoline powered Otto cycle by using highly compressed hot air to ignite the fuel instead of using a spark plug (compression ignition rather than spark ignition).

In the true diesel engine, only environment is in the beginning introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is actually then compressed with a compression ratio typically between 15:1 and 22:1 leading to 40-bar (4.0 MPa; 580 psi) force compared to 8 to 14 bars (0.80 to 1.40 MPa; 120 to 200 psi) in the petrol engine. This high compression heats the air to 550 Ã�ÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃC (1,022 Ã�ÃÃÃÃ�ÃÃF). At in regards to the top of the compression stroke, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air in the burning chamber. This may be into a (typically toroidal) void in the very best of the piston or a pre-chamber dependant upon the design of the engine. The fuel injector ensures that the fuel is broken down into small droplets, and that the fuel is distributed evenly. The heat of the compressed air vaporizes fuel out of the surface of the droplets. The vapour is then ignited by the warmth from the condensed atmosphere in the combustion chamber, the droplets continue to vaporise from their surfaces and burn, getting smaller sized, until all the fuel in the droplets continues to be burnt. The start of vaporisation causes a delay duration during ignition as well as the characteristic diesel slamming sound as the vapour gets to ignition temperature and causes an abrupt increase in pressure above the piston. The rapid expansion of combustion fumes then drives the piston downward, supplying capacity to the crankshaft.

As well as the high level of compression enabling combustion to take location without a separate ignition system, a higher compression ratio greatly increases the engine's productivity. Boosting the compression ratio in a spark-ignition engine where air and fuel are mixed before entryway to the cylinder is restricted because of the need to prevent damaging pre-ignition. Since only air is compressed in a diesel engine, and fuel is not introduced into the cylinder until shortly before top dead centre (TDC), premature detonation is not issue and compression ratios are much higher.

Diesel's original engine injected gasoline with the assistance of compressed air, which atomized the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle (a similar principle to an aerosol spray). The nozzle opening was closed by a pin device lifted by the camshaft to initiate the fuel injection before top dead heart (TDC). This is called an air-blast shot. Driving the three stage compressor used some power but the efficiency and net power production was significantly more than any other burning engine at that time.

Diesel engines in service today raise the fuel to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and deliver it to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors without compressed air. With direct injected diesels, injectors spray fuel through 4 to 12 small orifices in its nozzle. The early environment injection diesels constantly had a remarkable burning without having the sharp increase in force during combustion. Scientific studies are now being performed and patents tend to be being taken out to again use some form of air injection to decrease the nitrogen oxides and pollution, reverting to Diesel's original implementation with its superior combustion and possibly quieter operation. In all major aspects, the contemporary diesel engine holds true to Rudolf Diesel's original layout, that of igniting fuel by compression at an exceptionally high pressure within the cylinder. With much higher pressures and high technology injectors, present-day diesel motors make use of the so-called good injection system applied by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine. The indirect injection engine could be regarded as the latest development of these low speed hot light bulb ignition engines.

In chilly weather, high rate diesel machines can be difficult to start as the mass associated with cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, protecting against ignition as a result of the higher surface-to-volume ratio. Pre-chambered machines make usage of small electrical heaters inside the pre-chambers called glowplugs, as the direct-injected engines have these glowplugs in the combustion chamber.

Many engines use resistive heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air for starting, or until the engine reaches running temperature. Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) hooked up to the electricity grid tend to be used in cold climates when an engine is turned off for extended periods (more than an hour), to reduce startup time and engine wear. Block heaters are also used for emergency power standby Diesel-powered turbines which must rapidly pick up load on a power failure. Into the past, a wider variety of cold-start methods were used. Some engines, such as Detroit Diesel engines used a system to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion. Other people used a mixed system, with a resistive heater burning up methanol. An impromptu method, particularly on out-of-tune engines, is to by hand spray an aerosol can of ether-based engine starter fluid into the intake air stream (usually through the intake air filter assembly).

Most diesels have become some are and turbocharged both turbo charged and supercharged. Because diesels do not have fuel in the cylinder before combustion is initiated, more than one bar (100 kPa) of air can be loaded in the cylinder without preignition. A turbocharged motor can create significantly more power than a normally aspirated motor of the same configuration, as having more air in the cylinders permits more fuel to be burned and thus more energy to be produced. A supercharger is powered mechanically by the engine's crankshaft, while a turbocharger is powered by the engine fatigue, not demanding any mechanical power. Turbocharging can improve the fuel economy of diesel machines by recovering waste heat from the fatigue, increasing the excess air factor, and increasing the ratio of engine output to friction losses.

A two-stroke engine really does not have a discrete exhaust and intake stroke and so is incompetent at self-aspiration. Therefore all two-stroke engines must be fitted with a blower to recharge the cylinders with air and assist in dispersing exhaust gases, a process referred to as scavenging. In some instances, the motor may also be fitted with a turbocharger, whose output is directed into the blower inlet. A few styles employ a crossbreed turbocharger for scavenging and charging the cylinders, which device is mechanically driven at cranking and low speeds to act as a blower.

As supercharged or turbocharged engines create even more energy for a given engine size as compared to naturally aspirated engines, attention should be paid to the mechanical design of components, lube, and air conditioning to handle the power. Pistons are usually cooled with lubrication petroleum sprayed on the bottom of the piston. Large engines may use sea, water water, or oil supplied through telescoping pipes attached for the crosshead.

As with gas engines, there are two classes of diesel engines in recent use: two-stroke and four-stroke. The four-stroke type is actually the "classic" version, tracing its lineage back into Rudolf Diesel's prototype. It's additionally the most frequently used form, being the preferred power source for many motor vehicles, especially buses and trucks. Much larger motors, these as used for railway locomotion and marine propulsion, are typically two-stroke units, offering a more favourable power-to-weight proportion, along with much better fuel economy. The absolute most powerful engines in the world are two-stroke diesels of mammoth dimensions.

Two-stroke diesel engine operation is just like that of petrol counterparts, except that fuel is certainly not combined with air before induction, additionally the crankcase does not take an active function in the cycle. The standard two-stroke design relies upon a mechanically pushed positive displacement blower to charge the cylinders with air before compression and ignition. The charging process also assists in expelling (scavenging) burning gases remaining from the previous energy stroke.

The archetype of the modern as a type of the two-stroke diesel is the (high-speed) Detroit Diesel Series 71 engine, developed by Charles F. "President" Kettering and his peers at General Motors company in 1938, in that the blower pressurizes a chamber when you look at the engine block that is often known as the "air box". The (very much larger medium-speed) Electro-Motive Diesel engine is used as the prime mover in EMD diesel-electric locomotive, marine and stationary applications, and was designed because of the same team, and is built on the same principle. However, a significant improvement built into most later EMD engines is the mechanically-assisted turbo-compressor, which provides charge air using mechanical assistance during starting (thereby obviating the necessity for Roots-blown scavenging), and provides charge air using an exhaust gas-driven turbine during normal operations hereby offering true turbocharging and additionally increasing the engine's energy output by at least fifty percent.

In a two-stroke diesel engine, since the cylinder's piston approaches the bottom dead centre exhaust ports or valves are opened relieving most of the extra pressure after which a passage amongst the environment field and the tube is opened, permitting air flow into the tube. The air flow blows the remaining combustion fumes from the cylinder this is the scavenging process. As the piston passes through bottom centre and starts upward, the passage is closed and compression begins, culminating in fuel injection and ignition. Refer to two-stroke diesel engines for more detailed coverage of aspiration types and supercharging of two-stroke diesel engines.

Normally, the number of cylinders are utilized in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration. The inline-six-cylinder design could be the many prolific in light- to medium-duty engines, though small V8 and larger inline-four displacement engines are also common. Small-capacity engines (generally thought about to be those below five litres in capacity) are generally four- or six-cylinder types, with the four-cylinder getting the most common type present in automotive uses. Five-cylinder diesel motors have also recently been produced, getting a compromise between the smooth running of the six-cylinder and the space-efficient proportions of the four-cylinder. Diesel engines for more compact plant machinery, boats, tractors, generators and pumps may end up being four, three or two-cylinder types, with the single-cylinder diesel engine continuing to be for light fixed work. Direct reversible two-stroke marine diesels need at minimum three cylinders for dependable restarting forwards and reverse, while four-stroke diesels need at least six cylinders.

The desire to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight proportion produced several novel cylinder arrangements to extract more power from a provided capacity. The uniflow opposed-piston engine uses two pistons in one cylinder with the combustion cavity in the middle and gas in- and outlets at the ends. This makes a comparatively light, powerful, swiftly running and financial engine right to be used in aviation. An example is the Junkers Jumo 204/205. The Napier Deltic motor, with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation, each containing two opposed pistons, the entire engine having three crankshafts, is one of the better known.

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